This information is from Jennifer Lazewski’s presentation to the Whitefish Bay Garden Club in October 2017. She is a member of the UW Extension SouthEast Wisconsin Master Gardners. Jennifer can be reached at email@example.com
Pollinators are primarily insects that help transfer pollen. Bees are the most important and efficient pollinators. They purposefully seek and gather pollen for food. Their bodies have features to gather and hold pollen.
Most other pollinators seek nectar and only incidentally transfer pollen, such as bugs, butterflies, and hummingbirds. They lack hairs to gather and hold pollen. They sometimes damage or eat pollen or parts of plants.
Pollinators are essential because 75% of the world’s major food crops require or benefit from pollinators. About one third of the food we eat needs animal pollination. In Wisconsin, pollinator dependent crops account for over $55 million in annual production, and honey and beeswax add another $3.5 – 4 million. Bees can’t fly very far, so local farms and home gardens need local bees.
Pollinators are declining in number due to habitat destruction and fragmentation. Causes include:
HOW CAN YOU SUPPORT POLLINATORS?
Wisconsin Pollinator Protection Plan:
What factors should you consider when designing a pollinator friendly garden?
As you weed your garden remember that how you dispose of invasive plants is important to keep the plants from spreading.
The Village of Whitefish Bay has guidelines for proper disposal of plants such as garlic mustard. Below we are reprinting an article published by the Village in Bay Leaves several years ago.
WHAT DO I DO IF I FIND GARLIC MUSTARD IN MY YARD?
Garlic Mustard is an invasive species and Whitefish Bay has the perfect climate for these plants to survive. If these plants are left to grow they will spread into lawns, gardens, and wooded areas and choke out the existing vegetation.
If you spot garlic mustard on your property, please hand pull it out of the ground. It is best to remove the plant when the soil is damp and before it begins to flower. Throw the entire plant including the root ball in a heavy clear plastic garbage bag and close it up. If you have a small amount you can put it into a small clear plastic bag and into your garbage container. If you have a large amount, put it into a heavy plastic garbage bag and label it garlic mustard. Leave the bag next to your garbage cans. Our garbage collectors will pick it up with your weekly trash. Please do not put the garlic mustard in yard waste or your compost pile. Yard waste is composted and the garlic mustard will contaminate the compost and further spread. Cutting the plant is not recommended as it has to be done at a certain period of time or the plant will re- sprout.
If you want to learn more about garlic mustard please visit the DNR website at http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/invasives/fact/garlicmustard.html
QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISPOSAL OF GARLIC MUSTARD CAN BE DIRECTED TO ENGINEER@WFBVILLAGE.ORG.
Amynthas Agrestis Crazy worm, is an invasive earthworm now active and found in Wisconsin. Originally from East Asia, this damaging pest was first found in Wisconsin in 2013. Crazy Worms are also sold under the names of Alabama jumpers and snake worms. They are a PROHIBITED species under Wisconsin's Invasive Species Rule NR 40.
You can recognize the worms because they act just like their name: crazy, jumping and thrashing when handled. If you pick one up it may shed its tail and act like a threatened snake. These worms can be from 1.5 to 8 inches long with a narrow band around their body (clitellum) that is smooth and milky white, unlike other species that have a raised clitellum. Crazy worms are asexual and reproduce easily, maturing in just 60 days. In one year they can have two hatches. It is easiest to see them in late June and early July. Populations double from September until the first hard frost, enabling them to double their population and do significant damage.
What's the Problem with Crazy Worms?
These pests change the soil and disrupt natural decomposition of leaf litter on the forest floor. The worms "turn good soil into grainy, dry worm casings (poop) that cannot support the understory plants of our forests" (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources ). Crazy worms cause the death and destruction of other plants, animals, and fungi because the understory community can no longer support them. In residential and urban areas, ornamental plantings and turf are damaged by the worms. The voracious appetite and speedy life cycle of these worms give them a competitive edge, causing long term effects and damage to Wisconsin forests.
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources believes that crazy worms are not yet wide-spread in Wisconsin, but since they reproduce and spread so quickly it is vital for the DNR to learn where they are and reduce their spread.
We Need Your Help! If you see crazy worms at your house, in your compost, at a boat landing, or in a forest near you, contact: Bernie Williams, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources firstname.lastname@example.org (608) 266-0624
For additional information visit www.dnr.wi.gov and search for "Invasive earthworms".
Photo credit: Wisconsin DNR website
On May 6, 2017, our club will celebrate International Migratory Bird Day. We will host a booth at Green Day in the Bay, located in Cahill Park at the warming house from 9 a.m. until noon. Come and bring your family to learn about migrating birds and their stopover sites through coloring pages for children, and make and take bird nesting bags for your backyard.
When birds migrate between nesting and wintering sites, they don't just stop anywhere; they rely on a handful of resource-rich and strategically located sites where they may double their body weight as they acquire the energy-rich fat stores needed to fly thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans. These places are known as stopover sites Some stopover sites are well known, such as along the coasts of Louisiana, New Jersey, and the Upper Bay of Panama, where birds stop after traveling along the shoreline. Others are inland, such as Venezuela's grasslands, wetlands in the central United States, and even urban parks and backyards.
In 2017, Environment for the Americas and local Bird Cities like our own invite you to join our celebration of the importance of stopover sites and their habitats. Wether you learn about a stopover site near your home, visit one far away, or create a safe place for birds in your backyard, your support can mean a safe journey for a migratory bird. Join the celebration!
To learn more, go to International Migratory Bird Day http://www.migratorybirdday.org.
The warm winter is causing many flowering plants to bloom early. Scientists can learn much from observing how plants are responding to the warm temperatures and can even predict how they will adapt in the future, but they need your help!
"The Chicago Botanic Garden has recently taken over Project BudBurst, a national citizen science project designed so you can help us collect just such data, and in this very warm year, it is more important than ever that we collect as much data as possible."
Project BudBurst is collecting bloom dates on forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia), red maple (Acer rubrum), and Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica). When you see that first yellow forsythia bloom, the first leaf on your red maple, or that first bluebell bud open, let scientists know by contributing to Project BudBurst. Click on the link above to set up an account and record your information.
Thanks to "My Chicago Botanic Garden-A blog" for sharing this information.
Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata, is a common invasive species in Wisconsin. It can be found in backyards and woods. Our community is working to reduce and eliminate its harmful effect on native plants. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources compiled a factsheet that describes how to identify Garlic Mustard, and then how to eliminate it. Click on the Garlic Mustard factsheet to learn more about this problem.
For more information click on the links below.
The Benefits of Birds
to Humans and Nature
Not everyone is aware of the diversity of birds around the world, the amazing migrations some take, and the phenomenal range of behaviors, plumages, and songs they exhibit. International Migratory Bird Day 2014 shares the many ways in which birds matter to the earth, to ecosystems, and of course, to us.
Some bird species provide practical solutions to problems, such as the need for insect and rodent control. Others disperse seeds, helping to revegetate disturbed areas. Others are pollinators, ensuring that we are graced with flowering plants, trees, and shrubs. Beyond the utilitarian, birds are inspirations for the arts.
Amadeus Mozart had a pet starling that motivated the opening theme of the Third Movement of his Piano Concerto No. 17 in G. Beethoven used the songs of thrushes and blackbirds, and many musical pieces contain the call of the cuckoo. Paintings, poetry, and of course the IMBD 2014 hammered steel drum art all express the intangible joy birds provide us every day. Join us in raising awareness of birds and why they matter through International Migratory Bird Day.
Follow these links to learn more!
Karen Sands, WFB resident and Manager of Sustainability for MMSD discussed the work being dine by MMSD and their goals for the community.
MMSD has mapped out 28 communities where they need to manage “out of banks” flooding. WFB has separate lines for storm water and sanitary water.
1 We need to filter polluted storm water runoff. The storm water picks up pollutants from roofs, lawns, and roads. Rain gardens can help filter all of this
2 Infiltrate sump pump discharges. In winter, (and all year), water drains to rain gardens, snow melts and absorbs into the ground rather than running off into sewer systems.
3 Hold storm water away from possibly leaky sanitary pipes. Possible cracks in laterals from old age, tree roots. Build rain gardens away from laterals. Water infiltration can be up to 50/gal per minute when it rains.
4 MMSD has a goal of filtering 740 million gallons of water through rain gardens, rain barrels, porous parking lots, and creating other permeable surfaces.
Aaron Jahncke, Asst. Village Engineer, discussed programs, plans and rebates being developed by the village. In 2012 -2013 WFB Village developed aerial maps showing impervious areas and a new assessment was created. However, they also have rebate programs for rain gardens, based on their size, and rain barrels. Brochures and manuals are both on the WFB village website.
WFB also plans to buy rain barrels in bulk and deliver to residents next year. The Village can also assist with site selection for rain gardens.
Marion Boelter, Master Gardener, discussed Rain Garden Siting and plants to be used.
Rain Garden siting Determined by:
Where the water flows across the lawn
Where sump pump discharges
And selecting an area to hold the water that is away from the sanitary laterals (10’ is best), and the house foundation
Size the garden based on soil factors and drainage area size.
There is a brochure available from www.learningstore.uwex.edu.
Prairie Nursery in Westfield WI is another good source and has a catalogue. www.prairienursery.com
Also be sure to call diggers hotline before starting
Rain gardens should hold water for 2-3 days at most after rain. Do a soil test and determine the soil type and texture. Then, select plants for the site conditions…sun, shade, and partial sun. Use native plants whenever possible and have 50% of the area include grasses, sedges, and bushes for good root development. Plant on a grid of 1 plant per square foot and place grasses every 2’ with flowers in between. If the area is large enough, plant in masses of 5 or 7 plants. Include specimen plants for interest. Consider plant height, plant characteristics and type of soil when deciding which plants to use and where to place them.
Open Meeting at WFB Village Hall
Nino Ridgeway was our guest speaker. Nino is the owner of Herbs and Everlasting at Barthel Fruit Farm in Mequon. She is a grower, entomologist and culinary expert.
Nino began by giving us an overview and then went on to describe the common sense and natural way to grow herbs (and plants).
· Give pants what they need…sun, water, carbon dioxide, space, airflow, proper bracing, micronutrients and proper temperatures for the specific plants.
· Most herbs need at least 6 hours of sun per day and well-drained soils.
· Clay soils have high nutrients and don’t need to be fertilized, but they do need to be amended with organic matter to break them up.
· Pots must ALWAYS be fertilized.
· Powdery mildew in pots comes from heat and poor air circulation, but doesn’t spread to other plants
Nino then went on to discuss specifics of both Cool Season herbs (early spring or fall) and Warm Season and Mediterranean herbs. She discussed varietals, pick tips, pests, and uses in cooking and baking. Please see attached handout for details.
· Cool Season include cilantro, parsley, dill, chives, lovage, fennel, mint, chervil, and nasturtium
· Warm season include Basil, oregano, thyme, sweet marjoram, garden sage, lavender, rosemary, pineapple sage, lemongrass, lemon verbena, savory, and French tarragon
Tip for rabbits: Mix warm water with the hottest crushed/ground peppers you can find. Add a clove of garlic and mix in a blender. Drizzle over plants and re-apply after heavy rains. Do not do this just before you plan to harvest!
Herb Gardening Naturally Handout
The Lawn and Garden Tips page is updated by members of the Whitefish Bay Garden Club.